The Information Process
Select an area from the list below:
  • The Heart of Resource-Based Learning
  • A Description of the Information Process
  • A Closer Look at the Information Process
    Introduction Information Literacy Learning Outcomes Building Plans Building Site What's New



    Keystage Level: Entry - 3

    Read in detail about what our students should be able to do, what they should know, and how they will feel about the information process by the (keystage) level of grade three. This excerpt (from The Atlantic Provinces Education Foundation [APEF] Language Arts Curriculum Entry-3) describes the changing roles for teachers and teacher-librarians, as well as for students. You will be able to view various learning strategies that may be viewed or downloaded and printed for you and your students to use in your own classroom or school library. Many of these were developed or adapted by teacher-librarians in Prince Edward Island.

    Primary students using learning stationsFollowing this section you will be able to link to the general and specific student learning outcomes (in Part 3 of this document) for information literacy, from the same APEF Language Arts curriculum. These are organized for your convenience, into the seven stages in the information process and you also may view the specific curriculum outcomes for students in grades one, two, and three (or emergent, early, transitional literacy stages).

    Remember, language arts outcomes for information literacy are essential across the entire curriculum! Other outcomes (from other core curricula) will be added to the same section (Part 3) as these become available.

    You will also be able to view the information skills suggested for this level (from the P.E.I. Information Skills Continuum, 1990) and link to information technology skills related to information literacy (from the new Technology Integration document for P.E.I. Education.)

    By The End Of Grade 3

    Information can be used to examine critically knowledge and understandings. Through the information process, students can revise their understandings, perceive weaknesses in information, and make better sense of their world.

    Students have much to gain when they experience a consistent approach to the information process beginning in the primary grades and continuing throughout their school years.
    The current emphasis on information literacy and its manifestation, resource-based learning, makes research information processing an essential part of a school curriculum and lifelong learning. Teachers provide curricular opportunities and experiences through which students can define, investigate, and develop solutions to problems, and learn how to make informed, wise decisions as they assume responsibility for their own learning. Students' questions are pursued through original research inquiry and investigation, and by questioning and using information in a range of media.

    Students have much to gain when they experience a consistent approach to the information process beginning in the primary grades and continuing throughout their school years. When library professionals, teacher-librarians, are part of the instructional team, they can provide co-ordination and support to classroom teachers as they develop a school wide plan for teaching information literacy. A collaborative and planned approach to the information process will result in schools having a carefully developed continuum of information skills and strategies, as well as a plan for instruction. This approach will be activated for a variety of projects, including those that make use of technology, in order to access, evaluate, use, create, and share information.

    The process of doing research involves a number of interrelated processes, skills, and strategies:

    • cognitive or thinking processes (creative, critical thinking) and problem-solving approaches
    • communication processes (reading and viewing, writing and representing, speaking and listening)
    • scientific process (experimenting, testing hypotheses)
    • "traditional" library and research skills
    • media/visual literacy
    • technological (competence)

    In the primary grades, students need many opportunities to see the information process demonstrated and to work through the process, with support, as a collaborative group. Another way teachers and teacher-librarians can support students in the early grades with the information process is to set up learning centres or stations where preselected learning resources are found... to be accessed and used in structured learning activities. Specific directions about information skills are given (including direct teaching when necessary) and products are often contained in pre-designed booklets.

    As students gain more experience, teachers sometimes organize learning stations that include several resource-based learning activities (relating to a topic or thematic unit) focusing on the information skills to be practised. Students usually work in cooperative groups and rotate through the stations. These resource-based learning stations can be completed by all students or they can be differentiated to meet students' needs and interests. Creative and critical thinking should be stressed and encouraged!

    Stages Within the Information Process

    Like the writing process, the information process involves a variety of skills and strategies grouped within phases or stages; these are commonly identified as:

    1. Planning Stage
    2. Gathering Information Stage
    3. Interacting With Information Stage
    4. Organizing Information Stage
    5. Creating New Information Stage
    6. Sharing and Presenting Information Stage
    7. Assessment and Evaluation Stage

    It is important to remember that learning centres or stations that include skills and strategies only from the first two or three stages of the information process will not adequately or fully develop students' information literacy.
    It should be emphasized that these stages of the information process are not lock step or linear. Students often return to stages, always building on them as they construct their own learning. Although not every information processing activity will take students through all of these stages, students need to have opportunities to work through the entire process. When they do engage in activities at resource-based learning centres or... stations that focus on one or more stages of the process, it us important for students to begin to understand what stage they are working on, and what skills or strategies they are practising.

    It is important to remember that learning centres or stations that include skills and strategies only from the first two or three stages of the information process will not adequately or fully develop students' information literacy. A combination of well-designed activity centres/stations that include a variety of information skills and strategies from all seven stages, or other types of information processing projects and activities will be necessary to ensure that most of the keystage learning outcomes for information literacy are achieved by all students. This is clearly demonstrated by the exemplary projects included in Part 4 of this document. The Committee tried to select activities designed for optimal information literacy achievement, in other words, those with learning outcomes (knowledge, skills, attitudes) identified for students in all seven stages of the information process.)

    Show Me The Planning Stage

    To view a list of information skills appropriate for the primary level:

    The P.E.I. Information Skills Continuum, 1990
  • Grade 1
  • Grade 2 - 3
  • Grade 3 - 4
  • Please note that Building Information Literacy replaces this earlier continuum as P.E.I.'s mandated curriculum (for information literacy) document. However, the earlier continuum is still in wide use and contains information that is still pertinent today!

    Read more about information skills, strategies, and outcomes students require for developing technological competence by the end of Grade 3:

    "Journey On" (The P.E.I. Information Technology Integration Document)
    Please note that many of the skills included in this document are an integral part of developing students' information literacy at the primary level!

    Contact the P.E.I. Department of Education for a copy of Journey On and lesson plans for Grades 1 - 3.
    Building Information Literacy Return to Top