The Information Process
Select an area from the list below:
  • The Heart of Resource-Based Learning
  • A Description of the Information Process
  • A Closer Look at the Information Process
    Introduction Information Literacy Learning Outcomes Building Plans Building Site What's New



    Keystage Level: 7 - 9

    Read in detail about what our students should be able to do, what they should know, and how they will feel about the information process by the (keystage) level of grade nine. This excerpt (from The Atlantic Provinces Education Foundation [APEF] Language Arts Curriculum 7-9) describes the changing roles for teachers and teacher-librarians, as well as for students. You will be able to view various learning strategies that may be viewed or downloaded and printed for you and your students to use in your own classroom or school library. Many of these were developed or adapted by teacher-librarians in Prince Edward Island.

    Intermediate students working on a group projectFollowing this section you will be able to link to the general and specific student learning outcomes (in Part 3 of this document) for information literacy, from the same APEF Language Arts curriculum. These are organized for your convenience, into the seven stages in the information process, and are provided for grades seven, eight, and nine.

    Remember, language arts outcomes for information literacy are essential across the entire curriculum! Other outcomes (from other core curricula) will be added to the same section (Part 3) as these become available.

    You will also be able to view the information skills suggested for this level (from the P.E.I. Information Skills Continuum, 1990) and link to information technology skills related to information literacy (from the new Technology Integration document for P.E.I. Education.)

    By The End Of Grade 9

    The current emphasis on information literacy and its manifestation, resource-based learning, makes research information processing an essential part of a school curriculum and lifelong learning. Teachers provide curricular opportunities and experiences through which students can define, investigate, and develop solutions to problems, and learn how to make informed, wise decisions as they assume responsibility for their own learning. Students' questions are pursued through original research inquiry and investigation, and by questioning and using information in a range of media.

    Students have much to gain when they experience a consistent approach to the information process beginning in the primary grades and continuing throughout their school years. When library professionals, teacher-librarians, are part of the instructional team, they can provide co-ordination and support to classroom teachers as they develop a school wide plan for teaching information literacy. A collaborative and planned approach to the information process will result in schools having a carefully developed continuum of information skills and strategies, as well as a plan for instruction. This approach will be activated for a variety of projects, including those that make use of technology, in order to access, evaluate, use, create, and share information.

    The information process involves a number of interrelated processes, skills, and strategies:

    • cognitive or thinking processes (creative, critical thinking) and problem-solving approaches
    • communication processes (reading and viewing, writing and representing, speaking and listening)
    • scientific process (experimenting, testing hypotheses)
    • "traditional" library and research skills
    • media/visual literacy
    • technological (competence)

    A wide array of learning resources must be provided within and beyond the classroom to support the development of information literacy and the achievement of related learning outcomes. Teachers and teacher-librarians can collaborate to improve access to learning resources by:

    • sharing and efficiently managing a wide range of materials
    • selecting resources that are intellectually accessible to all students (can be read/viewed, understood; matching learning styles and needs)
    • providing appropriate resources from, or for use in, a variety of settings (classroom, school library, computer lab, local or global community)

    In the intermediate grades seven, eight, and nine, students need many opportunities to work through the information process, individually and in cooperative learning activities. Teachers and teacher-librarians may use a number of resource-based approaches:

    • learning centres or information centres (where preselected resources and learning activities are accessed and/or completed by students)
    • learning stations (where several activities are organized around specific learning resources... in a variety of formats; students work in cooperative pairs or groups to complete some/all of the activities)
    • inquiry-based authentic projects (individuals or cooperative groups pursue a question or information-related problem, with emphasis on "learning about" a topic and sharing their meaningful solutions with decision-makers and others who share their interest)
    • World Wide Web-based activities (teachers use the Internet as a tool; information- related problems are solved, projects are developed, using online resources; students may also create and share/publish their findings and their products, using web pages and/or email connections with others)

    Students' achievement of learning outcomes for information literacy will depend on the way the resource-based learning activity is structured. If, for example, a centre or series of station activities concentrates on locating information and simply interacting with the information to determine the way it is organized or factual content... learning outcomes for these skills will be the focus for assessment of the students' learning. If, however, students are expected to use the information in other ways, to analyze and synthesize it into a knowledgeable product which is shared or presented to others, then the assessment of the students' learning will focus on the skills, knowledge and attitudes developed throughout the entire activity. A variety of activities is recommended for this reason. It may not always be necessary to engage students in activities resulting in the achievement of learning outcomes for higher level thinking (analysis, synthesis) but it will be necessary to implement some activities where this will be expected.
    Students' achievement of learning outcomes for information literacy will depend on the way the resource-based learning activity is structured.

    A systematic approach is needed for students to experience success with defining, investigating, and developing solutions to their problems and questions. Like the writing process, the information process involves many different skills and strategies, grouped within phases or stages. Each part of the process builds on a previous part, laying the groundwork for the next part.

    Stages Within the Information Process

    The seven phases or stages are commonly identified as follows:

    1. Planning Stage
    2. Gathering Information Stage
    3. Interacting With Information Stage
    4. Organizing Information Stage
    5. Creating New Information Stage
    6. Sharing and Presenting Information Stage
    7. Assessment and Evaluation Stage

    Higher levels of cognition generally occur when students engage in skills and strategies for processing information at the Organizing, Creating, Sharing and Evaluation stages.

    Show Me The Planning Stage

    To view a list of information skills appropriate for the Grades 7, 8, and 9 level:

    The P.E.I. Information Skills Continuum, 1990
  • Grade 7 - 8
  • Grade 9 - 10
  • Please note that Building Information Literacy replaces this earlier continuum as P.E.I.'s mandated curriculum (for information literacy) document. However, the earlier continuum is still in wide use and contains information that is still pertinent today!

    Read more about information skills, strategies, and outcomes students require for developing technological competence by the end of Grade 9:

    "Journey On" (The P.E.I. Information Technology Integration Document)
    Please note that many of the skills included in this document are an integral part of developing students' information literacy at the primary level!

    Contact the P.E.I. Department of Education for a copy of Journey On and lesson plans for Grades 7 - 9.
    Building Information Literacy Return to Top