The Information Process
Select an area from the list below:
  • The Heart of Resource-Based Learning
  • A Description of the Information Process
  • A Closer Look at the Information Process
  • BUILDING INFORMATION LITERACY  
    Introduction Information Literacy Learning Outcomes Building Plans Building Site What's New

     

    STAGES WITHIN THE INFORMATION PROCESS

    Interacting With Information Stage (by the end of Grade 6)

    During this stage of the process, students will likely use several skills and strategies from all three language strands as they attempt to answer their own questions or explore their topics through inquiry. These may include:

    • evaluate information further, to determine if it is useful in answering their questions
    • question, skim, read (QSR)
    • use text features such as key words, bold headings, captions
    • use navigational features of software to find specific information
    • read, interpret simple charts, graphs, maps, pictures, and graphics in electronic sources
    • listen and view for relevant information
    • compare, evaluate content from multiple sources and mediums to determine accuracy, currency, authority
    • question conflicting data or information
    • differentiate between fact and opinion
    • identify bias in sources
    • record information (in point-form notes or in key words/data in a database) as they attempt to answer their guiding questions/subtopics
    • represent as well as write their findings (e.g. in pictures or symbols)
    • record sources of information

    Students may need to see demonstrations (or "mini-lessons") and have opportunities to use a variety of strategies/organizers that make explicit the skills and strategies necessary to interact with information effectively (e.g., how to read, evaluate, and record information effectively). It is helpful to provide students in the elementary grades with prepared formats such as matrix sheets, webs, charts, computer database, or spreadsheets for recording their data, information, and sources.

    The practice of acknowledging sources should be emphasized to overcome plagiarism and to create respect for the work and ideas of others. In the elementary years, students should be introduced to creating a formal bibliography. Authors, titles, publication data, as well as URL's for websites and names of resource persons and dates of interviews, should be included in whatever format/strategy is to be used by students.

    Most learning center or learning station activities (including some types of web-based projects) focus on skills and strategies associated with this part of the Information Process, "interacting with information." Students are usually required to read/view/discuss/listen to information (pre)selected from various learning resources, and then write point-form notes or symbols (pictures, numerical data) to represent information. Directions should be clearly written, easy to follow, and match intended learning outcomes for students' learning. These resource-based learning activities should also be purposeful, creative, and require higher-level thinking as much as possible. Students, regardless of their grade level, should be required to do more than simply answer questions (i.e. literal comprehension, simply "finding out"); they should be expected to use many of the higher order skills (for critical and creative thinking) listed above (i.e. thinking about)

    For example, rather than expecting students to simply find out about a country, using the usual sub-topics or categories for their notes, try an approach where students have to assume a particular role and learn about the topic/use information in more creative ways. A project on any country might begin with a "critical challenge" such as:

    "You (or your team) are to make a plan for a vacation or a family exchange in Australia for several months. What do you already know about living in Australia? What questions do you have for further inquiry? Use these questions to assist you in gathering and interacting with resources, including websites, located at this centre and beyond."

    This approach is commonly used when developing WebQuests. Please refer to the description of this type of resource-based learning (in the electronic learning environment) in Part 1 of this document. You will also find some great examples of WebQuests developed by P.E.I. educators in the Building Plans within this document. Try "Mission to Mars" (for grade 6) or "Vanishing Habitats" (for grade 4) both activities designed by Michelle McQuaid, Information Technology Facilitator, P.E.I. Department of Education. Perhaps you would like to share your own WebQuest with others. You can do this at the Building Site level in Building Information Literacy; just use the template provided for constructing and/or sharing your own resource-based learning activity!

    To view samples of learning strategies/cognitive organizers for students, click on Learning Strategies. You may wish to download/print these strategies, and adapt them for your students!

    Show Me The Student Learning Outcomes For This Stage

    Show Me The Organizing Information Stage

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