The Information Process
Select an area from the list below:
  • The Heart of Resource-Based Learning
  • A Description of the Information Process
  • A Closer Look at the Information Process
    Introduction Information Literacy Learning Outcomes Building Plans Building Site What's New



    Interacting With Information Stage (by the end of Grade 9)

    During this stage of the process, students will likely use several skills and strategies from all three language strands as they attempt to answer their own questions or explore topics through in-depth inquiry... this is what we mean by "literacy:"

    • Students will need to use skills for questioning, skimming, and reading (QSR).
    • They will need to use organizational, text, and navigational features to find specific information (e.g. using an index, captions or icons...)
    • Students need to be made aware of the importance of keeping a bibliography. They should keep track of bibliographic data for all their sources, including those in electronic format, in order to construct their own bibliography later in the process. (A database could be used to deep track of all the required bibliographic information for each student to complete their bibliography.)
    • Direct quotations should be recorded (using audio for interviews) or by writing the precise words of the speaker and noting the source of the quoted information.
    • Students need to critically evaluate the information they have accumulated and decide whether or not the information is relevant.
    • Some helpful ways to evaluate the information include:
      - Reputation of author
      - Currency
      - Date of site updating (Internet)
      - Bias
      - Relevancy/suitability to purpose
      - Authenticity and verification through support from another source
    • Students will also need to question conflicting data or information from different sources and use the same evaluation criteria (above) to determine what is useful and what is less useful (or inaccurate/less authoritative).
    • Students need to examine information from several sources to construct and communicate meaning. The ability to synthesize and summarize information develops with practice!
    • They need to recognize that language can be used to manipulate and they should be able to differentiate between facts and opinions, and learn how to identify bias in the information they are using.
    • Students need to use text and menu features such as key words, bold headings/words, photographs, charts, graphics to help them select relevant information.
    • Notes should be written or recorded and data/ information may also be represented in an appropriate format. (These might include an idea/or note-making web, matrix sheet, note cards, chart, computer database, or spreadsheet.) By the intermediate level, students should be developing preferences for recording information, and their notes should be brief, but also accurate and useful.

    When Students retrieve information from electronic sources (CD-ROM, other computer software, or online) they also need to evaluate what they find, using the same criteria they would use for print or audio-visual sources. If they are encouraged to use "copy and paste" techniques for gathering such data or information, teachers will need to ensure their students know that proper citation is required. Plagiarism should be addressed at this stage and students should record bibliographic information for their electronic sources (title, author, editor, URL, date, etc.) in order to include this in their bibliography later.

    Regardless of the grade level, students should be expected to do more than simply find out about an assigned topic. They need to exercise higher order thinking skills (for critical and creative thinking) and learning activities need to be designed to ensure this actually happens. Using information effectively and learning about an issue or a problem, will ensure that our students are preparing to become lifelong learners and responsible citizens. Assignments should be meaningful for all students, particularly adolescent learners. Problem-related questions or "critical challenges" often arise from "real-life" contexts and concerns. The student will find the assigned task more interesting stimulating if there are obvious connections to be made with their own experiences and concerns and/or with issues from the local or global community.

    This approach is commonly used when developing WebQuests. Please refer to the description of this type of resource-based learning approach (in the electronic learning environment) in of this document. You will also find some great examples of WebQuests developed by P.E.I. educators in the Building Plans (Part 4) within this site.

    To view samples of learning strategies/cognitive organizers for students, click on Learning Strategies. You may wish to download/print these strategies, and adapt them for your students!

    Show Me The Student Learning Outcomes For This Stage

    Show Me The Organizing Information Stage

    Building Information Literacy Return to Top