The Information Process
Select an area from the list below:
  • The Heart of Resource-Based Learning
  • A Description of the Information Process
  • A Closer Look at the Information Process
    Introduction Information Literacy Learning Outcomes Building Plans Building Site What's New



    Creating New Information Stage (by the end of Grade 12)

    At this stage a great deal of onus must be on the student. Throughout the course of the senior high school years a variety of forms for product creation and presentation should be encouraged. Students in grades 10, 11, and 12 need to apply a range of effective strategies as they create a variety of writing and other representations for sharing the information and ideas they have gathered, evaluated, and synthesized. The Blue Book is useful for guiding students through the actual creation of a written report or essay. However, there are a multitude of other types of representations which should be considered by both students and teachers, including the following:

    • a debate
    • Web page(s)
    • a research paper
    • an essay
    • poem, short story
    • editorial
    • impersonation
    • dramatization (or skit)
    • audio or video recording
    • storyboard
    • display of photographs or realia
    • diary
    • panel discussion or debate
    • game
    • hyper-media or multi-media presentation (with digital audio or video)
    • poster
    • collage
    • database or spreadsheet
    • information illustration(s) (drawings or paintings or computer-generated)
    • leaflet
    • advertisement
    • desktop publishing (with computer graphics)
    • stage play

    Considerations about product creation may include:

    • visual appeal
    • value of sound
    • appropriateness of a written report or essay
    • appropriateness of various written products or other types of representations

    The choice of a type of product (and presentation) should, of course, "fit" the assigned task or topic for inquiry. Some of the representations listed above will be better product choices for some learning activities than others. Teachers will also need to determine the anticipated learning outcomes for their students in order to assist them with these decisions. For example, if a written product is required, then the form will already be partially determined. An essay or written report, a poem, or an editorial might be chosen. If however, another type of representation is emphasized in order to provide students with opportunities to develop their speaking or representing skills, other than writing (or in addition to writing) then the choice of products will be quite different. A theatrical performance, a debate, a collage of photographs, or a poster might be good choices. If technological competence or media literacy are emphasized, then students will need to have access to the tools they require, as well as training if necessary, to create a leaflet or advertisement using desktop publishing and graphics. Multi-media presentations or Web page creation also requires appropriate technologies, skills and teacher support. Where teacher-librarians, classroom teachers, and computer instructors are able to collaborate in developing and implementing activities requiring the full spectrum of products and presentations, students will certainly have more opportunities to develop their individual repertoires and portfolios.

    Consideration must also be given to the audience. Discussion about the anticipated products and presentations should include the anticipated audience and the following questions may be helpful:

    • Will the sharing occur with peer in the students own classroom?
    • Will they be expected to present their products or findings to others (beyond the classroom)?
    • Where and when will the presentation/sharing take place and how long will the students have to prepare for this?
    • Will the audience have a role in assessing the presentations or evaluating the products?

    Although many senior high school students have more highly developed skills for developing and creating products and presentations, they should be provided with adequate structure, time, and support in order to achieve success. Expecting them to do everything "in their own time" sends a negative message to these learners about the importance of this stage in the Information Process. Conferencing, mini-lessons, and individual attention may be needed and should be available. Teacher-librarians and their teacher partners will need to be sensitive to these needs in order to provide their students with the assistance they require. A good "mix" of individual and cooperative/group products and presentations is also recommended, allowing students to assume more responsibility for their own information literacy skill development, and for learning how to learn and making joint presentations with others.

    To view samples of learning strategies/cognitive organizers for students, click on Learning Strategies. You may wish to download/print these strategies, and adapt them for your students!

    Show Me The Student Learning Outcomes For This Stage

    Show Me The Sharing and Presenting Information Stage

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